Advanced video mapping techniques - Spatial Augmented Reality applied to cultural heritage

New Technologies for the Arts
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This volume is intended to be an exhaustive guide for all those who, already masters the basic techniques of video mapping, want to deepen the subject and in particular want to focus attention on the Spatial Augmented Reality (SAR) applied to cultural heritage, whether artistic, archaeological or museological.

SAR offers in this sector great unexplored opportunities, especially if you think of its hybridization with traditional museographic systems or with more futuristic mixed reality systems; it is often configured as the best action to be interpreted to communicate the past as it frees the user from the brightness of other systems.

The text, starting from a quick overview of the current technologies that are laying the foundations for those of the future, addresses the advanced techniques of surface acquisition and then move on to the theme of modeling and MadMapper, currently the only software with specific functions for video mapping.

The last chapter is finally dedicated to the theme of augmented heritage and focuses attention on the use of multimedia procedures for the communication of cultural heritage with digital technologies both audio and video.


Preface  by Antonio  Lampis

Introduction by Donato Maniello

Chapter 1 – Out-of-screen art: technologies and state of the art today

1.1 Video project ourselves into the future

1.2 Contemporary technologies and communication potential

Chapter 2 – Advanced methods for mapping a surface

2.1 Introduction

2.2 3D Scanning Mapping with SFM technique 

2.2.1 UV Mapping

2.2.2 Positioning of the texturing camera 

2.2.3 Modelling in Lp from model in Hp

2.2.4 Positioning of the camera from the perspective of the video projector

2.3 2D Scanning Mapping (structured light)

2.4 Virtual mapping: the 3D pose estimation

2.5 Syphon: Using After Effects and Cinema 4D in tracking mapping

2.5.1 After Effects and real-time tracking mapping

2.5.2 Cinema 4D and real-time tracking mapping

2.6 Notes on the automatic transformation from High poly to Low poly from the SFM scans of archaeological objects: Texture Baking

2.6.1 Mesh reduction in Cinema 4D: from Hp to Lp

2.6.2 xNormal: texturize a Lp model

2.6.3 Meshlab: from Hp to Lp and texturing

2.7 Perspective view in the mapping

2.7.1 Point of view of  the video projectors and the public

Chapter 3 – Reconstruct the real in the virtual: 3D modeling

3.1 Methods and workflows

3.2 Creation of a reality based 3D model: Method A 

3.3 Creation of a reality based 3D model: Method B 

3.4 Considerations on optimizing a 3D model for video mapping 

Chapter 4 – MadMapper: Increasing the content of reality

4.1 General overview of the program interface

4.2 Connecting a video projector

4.3 Comparison of working methods

4.4 Spacial Scanner: 2D Scanning Mapping (structured light)

4.4.1 The Spacial Scanner applied to the urban scene: The Cloister of San Francesco in Ostuni

4.4.2 The Spacial Scanner applied on a 1:30 scale model:The Cloister of San Francesco in Ostuni

4.4.3 A special application of the Spacial Scanner

4.5 Mapping surfaces in live mode with background image derived from the Spacial Scanner

4.5.1 Using quad surfaces, masks and groups

4.5.2 Adding animated lines and modifying surfaces with Mesh Warping

4.6 Adapting one prospective view to another 

4.6.1 Mesh Warping4.6.2 The “part by part” technique

4.7 Pairing multiple video projectors: Edge Blending

4.8 miniMAD: a small laptop computer 

4.8.1 miniMAD: controls

4.8.2 miniMAD: external keyboard 

4.8.3 miniMAD: let’s connect it to the computer and the video projector

4.9 How to map an external controller with MadMapper

4.10 Virtual mapping: How to use MadMapper’s 3D surfaces

4.10.1 Adding depth to flat surfaces: 2.5D or reverse mapping

4.10.2 Matching between real and virtual model through 3D pose estimation technique

Chapter 5 – Augmented space reality applied to cultural assets:the augmented heritage

5.1 Five ideas for improving museum experiences by Joanie Lemercier

5.2 Manipulating numerical data to transform it into immersive experiences using augmented reality: presence vs. absence, copy vs. original 

5.3 The application fields and alternative practices in the Museums and cultural heritage sector

5.4 From the displayed object to the narrative object. A premise

5.4.1 The augmented heritage and the group social experience

5.5 Augmented Reality in the Museum: rationalization of a process

5.6 Augmented heritage  for the enhancement of cultural heritage.Sounds and lights for the Königorgel in Nijmegen

5.7 The magnificent adventure of a “fragment”. The N XLVI Block of the North Frieze of the Parthenon in Spatial Augmented Reality

5.8 Michelangelo’s David: an augmented reality application on full-scale reproduction using the video mapping technique

5.9 Augmented cityscape: the GLOWFestival case as a showcase for the region’s cultural heritage

5.10 Art on Art. SAR as a value for contemporary art and as an educational medium for art history: All Bands by Sol LeWitt and the Cathedral of Messina

5.11 Considerations on designing audio content on multimedia platforms by Luca Canciello

5.11.1 Multimedia installation method, exhibition “Tra Terra e Mare”(Archaeological Site of Rione Terra, Pozzuoli)

5.11.2 Installation of the Stanza del Tombarolo, multimedia exhibition “A Casa d’Europa. Stories of the crater of Assteas.”(National Archaeological Museum of Sannio Caudino)

5.11.3 Installation for the launch of the Porsche 911 Carrera 2015(Centro Porsche Napoli)

5.12 Arenberg Mine: mémoires du fond. Telling the story of the mine in augmented reality about the scale reproduction of the former mining site

5.13 Methods, choices and problems to compare in the use of SAR applied to the visualization and communication on scale reproductions of cultural assets

5.13.1 Spatial display

5.13.2 Planar surfaces 1:2 scale model of the work All Bands by Sol LeWitt5.13.3 Non-planar surfaces 1:30 scale 3D model of the Cloister of San Francesco in Ostuni 1:1 scale 3D model of the N XLVI block of the North Frieze of the Parthenon 1:1 scale 3D model of the red-figure Dinos Apulo

5.13.4 Discontinuous surfaces 1:500 scale 3D model of the former Arenberg mining site

5.13.5 Conclusions

5.14 A walk to the National Archaeological Museum of Naples:research and proposals for multimedia installations based on SAR5.15 The fusion of different languages for cultural heritage communication: analogue and digital practices in comparison

5.15.1 The London Charter

5.15.2 Hybrid communication: analogue and digital in contemporary museography The trompe l’oeil The ghost structures The Roman amphitheatre in London 3D printing in the reproduction of cultural heritage and an alternative for the reproduction of the red-figure Dinos Apulo Museographic reconstructions


The Author  

Donato Maniello

Architect, PhD in "Materials and Structures for Architecture" and Lecturer in the field of New Technologies for Art. Founder of Studio Glowarp, specialized in the use of SAR in the museum sector for the enhancement of cultural monuments Active in training and scientific research in the field of augmented heritage and involved in several projects and institutional collaborations.

Donato Maniello

Donato Maniello, Architect, Ph.D. in "Materials and Structures for Architecture" and Lecturer in the field of New Technologies for Art. Founder of Studio Gwarp, specialized in the use of SAR in museums for the enhancement of cultural heritage. Active in training and scientific research in the field of augmented heritage and involved in various projects and institutional collaborations.

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